Cellular Cannibalism May Have Led to the Evolution of Everything, Including Us

In comic books and superhero movies changes
to genetic material lead to some prettttty strange capabilities! But in reality, could altering our genetics
help us rapidly evolve? Unfortunately for those of us who live in
the real-world, expression of large mutations requires evolution: generations of iterative
selection of a specific change. So, sorry, no single exposure to radioactive
sludge is gonna turn you into a mutant turtle with martial arts skills. We rarely get to see the results of the mutations
that build up in our DNA over a lifetime. But, if you let yourself start to think about
the fact that the complexity of life we all take for granted started out as a collection
of single celled organisms — we all kinda look like superheroes. So how does a simple cell get to be a complex
creature like you and me? Well, one individual cell can’t, but generations
of its descendants, over millions of years, making mistakes in replication and reproduction,
of begging, borrowing and stealing similar evolutionary solutions, suffering a harrying
gauntlet of selection pressures and environmental changes … apparently did. Early on, like, 1.4 billion years ago early
on, a jump in evolutionary complexity may have occurred when a simple single cell engulfed
another simple single cell. These two cells likely had some genetic variability
between them and so a more complex cell was born. The process of one cell absorbing another
in its entirety is called phagocytosis. When that happened, the ingested cell didn’t
get chewed up and digested — instead, it formed a beneficial relationship, with its
devourer. Endosymbiotic theory suggests that post phagocytosis,
the resultant symbiotic relationship was so successful (over generations) that the engulfed
cell eventually relied on the host cell to provide the resources it needed to survive,
and the host cell likely gained the benefit of any superpowers its prey may have evolved,
like the ability to generate energy or photosynthesize. The mitochondria in our own cells and the
chloroplasts required for photosynthesis in plants may have started out as bacteria with
extraordinary abilities that were engulfed by other cells. These compartments still have minimal circular
genomes that look like bacterial genomes, evidence for the hypothesis that they were
once independent. I wish I could say that this approach to symbiosis
worked in complex systems but sadly it is limited to simple, single celled organisms. So if you were wondering, eating a spider,
even a radioactive one, will not give you the ability to swing around skyscrapers and
climb walls on your fingertips. There is evidence, however, that more complex
genomes can benefit from contact with foreign genes. One example of this is a protein called Arc. Arc works very similarly to the viral coat
proteins of retroviruses like HIV. It assembles together to create an envelope
that carries RNA between cells. This is how retroviruses infect their hosts. In mice and possibly in humans, the behavior
is essential for memory formation. It’s likely that our version of Arc came
from a virus that infected a cell long ago — and now we can’t form memories without
it! Why? Scientists aren’t yet sure — but our neurons
need the ability to shuttle RNA back and forth like viruses. The capability is evidence of horizontal gene
transfer — vertical gene transfer is direct inheritance, horizontal is when weird stuff
like this happens. There is an obvious evolutionary benefit to
creating diversity through random genetic events and nature has many mechanisms through
which to ensure that it beta tests a wide variety of genetic variations. The lucky ones will persist in the population
and likely confer some survival and/or reproductive advantage to it’s carriers, and we may never
know they’re there. It is unlikely that a random event will lead
to the development of superpowers overnight, and we’re still waiting for modern gene
therapy to go mainstream. But, right now, it is highly likely that you
are already a mutant experiment of nature who will pass down the primitive building
blocks of some superpower to future generations of your offspring. For more on the secret lives of cells, check
out this video. And Fun Fact: human male mtDNA self destructs
upon fertilization so we inherit 100% of our mitochondrial DNA from our mothers The powerhouse
of the cell, ladies. Thanks for watching Seeker.

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100 thoughts on “Cellular Cannibalism May Have Led to the Evolution of Everything, Including Us

  1. What about when particles hit our DNA and RNA every day some times you get cancer or even more not so noticeable changes causing your DNA and RNA in to evolve in someway this passes down Generations slowly evolving into actual noticeable changes

  2. 😀 no one think that it's gonna turn him to a mutant turtle with martial arts skills. it's turning a turtle to a giant turtle a teach it martial arts

  3. ……was her eyebrow cannibalized ??? i dont think her eyebrow gained her any symbiotic super powers 😎😂😄
    or maybe her eyebrow genes got transferred from a virus with a primitive mutation LMAO!!!!
    id bang her still, n splooge all over her eyebrow 😌 she looks like a fun lil' freak 😋

  4. Can someone tell her that the teenage mutant ninja turtles started out as turtles, not humans, that fell into radioactive sludge.. oh and spider man was bit by a radioactive spider, he didn’t eat one 🙄😒😑 Really gurl?

  5. This theory is laughably absurd. Just goes to show the evolution faithful will eat up any ole piece of bullshit that in any remote way gives the appearance of validating their religious faith masquerading as science.

    Hey evolution fanatics I have a question for you. All life requires DNA, and all DNA requires proteins, and proteins cannot exist without DNA. So which came first, DNA or proteins?

    Any attempt at an answer on the basis of evolution is an exercise in futility, for evolution posits that one had to come first. Yet neither can function without the other.

  6. A omnipotent biology must be at ease and in unison with the universe without discrimination between "animate" and in animate matter as the entire verse is ONE living entity! Now that is powerful…

  7. A omnipotent biology must be at ease and in unison with the universe without discrimination between "animate" and in animate matter as the entire verse is ONE living entity! Now that is powerful…

  8. Not really related to the video, but when Yellowstone erupts and kills off 99.9999999999% of human life me and 100 hot chicks will have the Big Bang 2.0 to bring humanity from the ashes.

  9. Sometimes I think you are stalking me Seeker. I research a thing, or ask a question somewhere, and days later here you are making videos about it.
    A consequence of being disposed toward similar pieces of information in the more homogenized world of the internet, I wonder?

  10. Does anyone here have a feeling that maybe; just maybe, the past has clues for the start of this, and that maybe the creator was just like us but in a different state of life and that it was at a peak of finding something amazing and created what would be known as life for us, and had begun a chain of hidden secrets of order to repeat itself as life and death and people had a set of time to live to unlock all this secrets, but non have and in real life it’s someone from the extreme future that started all this🤯

  11. I don't like this host. Not spoken as clearly as the rest of you, and tries to hard to be Hank.

  12. cannibalism: "the practice of eating the flesh of one's own species."
    This is no cannibalism (even if we replace "flesh" with "cells"). it's an endosymbiotic relationship

  13. Quick correction. The endosymbiotic event did not happen 4.1 billion years ago. Modern phylogenetic reconstructions put it at 0.9 to1 billion years ago at most

  14. I thought this is general knowledge, like, it is thought every year in science class when I was in high school.

  15. the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell…and also was cannibalized before it became part of a cell

  16. So I'm wondering their are a bunch of multicelled organisms, usually containing billions of cell, and a bunch of single celled organisms but I never heard of 2 celled organisms or 3,4,5,6… So can some explain that I am curious.

  17. I have a Theory. Maybe our kind of Evolution is unique only to our Planet – Earth. It is silly of us to expect same kind of Evolution on other Planets. Maybe there are Forms of "Life" that we would never identify as "Life" that exists on other Planets.

    I'm not talking about Walking Tree like Creatures or Shelled Creatures with Wings, More like – "Inter-stellar Gaseous Life Forms", "Life form made of Plasma" or "Ice based Life form that can assume liquid form whenever it wishes" etc.

    We out of having only experienced "One Form of Evolution" think Carbon based Life forms are the only inevitable result of evolution in the whole Universe. If anything, The Universe is only more freaky than anyone could ever imagine !!!

  18. Evolution is fake. Its a scientific fact that humans aren't genetically sound on Earth from birth. Without close care it's sure death and extinction. So we didn't evolve because are bodies aren't adapted to the harsh enviornment that is Earth.

  19. I love your videos, and watch them everyday. I have subscribed to your channel and would like; if you subscribed to my channel. Thank you!

  20. "STOP" Lying with the theory of unicellular evolution of life, just by adding millions of years — scientific always justify unknown theories with millions of years —and making up theories (stories) —–be truthful and say it is UNKNOWN

  21. (this was a reply I made to a comment I think is quite relevant to this video) this is why present and past religion is so damn dangerous to the future growth of humanity..

    "A group experience takes place on a lower level of consciousness than the experience of an individual. This is due to the fact that, when many people gather together to share one common emotion, the total psyche emerging from the group is below the level of the individual psyche. If it is a very large group, the collective psyche will be more like the psyche of an animal, which is the reason why the ethical attitude of large organizations is always doubtful. The psychology of a large crowd inevitably sinks to the level of mob psychology. If, therefore, I have a so-called collective experience as a member of a group, it takes place on a lower level of consciousness than if I had the experience by myself alone." – Carl Jung

    If "a" or "the" God exists then why do other religions even come to be or exist. Only one should exist, and no other should even be able to flourish. All religion is, is an IKEA manual to life. You still have to do it all yourself but you think you've made life easier by having following the simple instructions and having something premade and not having to think for yourself at all, just follow the commands.
    Which in reality creating your own table or couch (or life) from scratch is much more rewarding than following some else's design and expectation.
    Creating your own way once you realise ideas now change rapidly, fundamentalism influence decays and death comes to all things tangible and imaginary, with no in-between just new beginnings on this present plane of existence.

    Now realising that your shitty table has fallen apart in a few weeks instead of building your own sturdy red gum table or view on life, your perfect reality crumbles down when other people start to prosper with ways of life that conflicts with everything you have feared they couldn't do according to the manual.

    Religion to be true to itself can't evolve (with time like it has) and shouldn't be allowed to if it is to stray from hypocrisy (also look at the extreme side of Muslim and Christian and Catholic religion, that shit ain't good either in today's civilization caused more deaths than any scientific atheistic lifestyle). Religion worked for some part of societal evolution when Authoritarian societies needed control over the masses to keep order to evolve to certain points until someone else comes along and mixes there own ideas into whatever governing body was before it.
    Over time societal evolution takes hold not some omnipotent all knowing being.

    I think we humans are just back to square one with the drive for interstellar travel, pretty much going back to cellular and atomic forms of existence by spreading our complex version of life to other planets to just create more complex forms of life again and again. And most likely that will be the same conclusion to every other life form we come across in the universe.

  22. What if we can make just one of our cells devour one cell of a radioactive superpowers spider? Could that eventually lead to at least a descendant of the person having some kind of new ability?

  23. Here's something I always wondered. If animal cells are descended from the cells that absorbed mitochondria, and plant cells are descended from the cells that absorbed chloroplasts, are there any cells that have BOTH mitochondria and chloroplasts? And if not, why not? It seems like at some point some cell would have absorbed both, and having the ability to generate its own power from sunlight would have been a strong evolutionary advantage.

  24. When Someone rejects the truth wonders in the lie.
    all antiGod theories are covered by the word "MAY" Which is a reciep for ambiguity.

  25. Like MRSA, true but that's assuming it requires a massive number of generations in order for DNA to mutate and express in new genes. I have my doubts about that time table.

  26. I really don't want to be the 70 year old curmudgeon that I am, but millions of years ago we still had saber toothed cats as well as humanoids. Certainly they cannot be considered single celled organisms! The dinosaurs had been dead for roughly 65 times that amount of time and they were certainly not single celled organisms either! 500 million years ago we had complex multicellular animals like trilobites swimming around in the oceans. As popular as this video is, I'm afraid you need to go back way beyond 500 million years before you get into your endosymbiosis leading to multicellular animals. Here is a video that suggests how our chromosomes may have been put together via an ancient endosymbiotic process: http://youtu.be/KPjBEslm7mg.

  27. I don't like that they put music in the background. I like that without music it feels like a class, however brief.

  28. I misread cannibalism as cannabis and thought this video was gonna be about how it might have helped us evolved.

  29. Plants, animals and people share the same single cells. We are large buildings made out of single family (cells) homes – check this out- https://youtu.be/fX8zQYROeSo

  30. Wrong evolution is false. It is mathematically impossible for us to be alive today with out thousands miracles when you take the evolution route.

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